Debbie Slack Debbie Slack::
Gerber How to think about characteristics A number of considerations should be kept in mind when considering the characteristics of adults with learning disabilities LD.
This diversity exists because learning disabilities are not a unitary construct.
An individual can have one specific problem or a constellation of problems. Moreover, learning disabilities do not manifest themselves in individuals in exactly the same way. Some learning disabilities can be mild, while others can be quite severe.
Second, it is important to note that, by definition, an adult who has learning disabilities is of average or above average intelligence. This wide span of ability means that it is possible for IQs to be low average to high or even gifted.
What is noteworthy about those who have learning disabilities is that ability does not match achievement -- whether in academic areas, in functional behaviors, or in employment outcomes. For example, what is problematic in a grade-school student can be very different from what is manifested in an adolescent with a learning disability.
Similarly, learning disabilities in adulthood present some different themes, challenges, and issues. Therefore, it is important to acknowledge that the experience of being learning disabled varies as an individual progresses through the various levels of development -- childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.
Even in adulthood, a stage of human development that can be as long as 70 years early adulthood to senior citizenthere are a multitude of issues to address. In the field of learning disabilities, it is not prudent or wise to approach an understanding of the characteristics of learning disabilities simply by taking a generic approach-- that a learning disability is a learning disability no matter what age, stage, or phase of development Gerber, First, academic skills that were not mastered during the school-age years remain difficult.
Problems arise in such areas as reading, math, spelling, and writing. In each case, there can be a wide variety of reasons for lack of attainment of academic skills.
In reading, for example, the reason might be poor comprehension enhancement strategies. Related to mathematics, problems evidence themselves in using math concepts and thinking in mathematical ways either for daily use or for more sophisticated applications.
Finally, in writing, whether the problem is spelling, handwriting, or written expression, there can be many reasons for apparent difficulties.
In each case, there is a high probability that the source of the problem s is the underlying dynamics of the learning disability: These psychological processes include cognition, perception, language, attention, motoric abilities, and social skills.
These processes, individually or collectively, have a bearing on academic skills, but they have equal impact on all areas of adult functioning -- whether at home, at work, or in the community. Secondary characteristics There also are numerous secondary characteristics relevant to the adult learning disabled experience.
These characteristics can be viewed as the "next layer" of manifestations of learning disabilities, which emerge as a collection of coping mechanisms or a set of thoughts and feelings evidenced in either positive or negative ways. Because of the complex nature of learning disabilities in adulthood, generalization about secondary characteristics must be viewed with a "discriminating eye"; that is, the characteristics discussed below may present themselves in various forms and exist around a multitude of themes.
An understanding of the secondary characteristics of adults with LD, therefore, must be based on the perspectives of the individual as an adult, the learning disability, and the context of lifespan issues.
Social and emotional characteristics are most notable in adults with LD. Unit LD Understand the context of supporting individuals with learning disabilities Understand the nature and characteristics of learning disability Explain what is meant by ‘learning disability’?
LD Give 3 examples of causes of learning disability LD 1. 2. 3. Understanding the characteristics of children with learning disabilities is absolutely essential as a future educator in developing prereferral interventions, in making appropriate referrals, and in identifying effective adaptations and intervention strategies (Smith et al., ).
The brain uses a foundational set of skills, called cognitive skills, to think and learn. Strong skills make learning easier.
One or more weak skills, however, can impact how efficiently we grasp, process, remember and apply the things we are attempting to learn.
Here’s a look at the learning process. A learning disability is a neurological condition that interferes with an individual’s ability to store, process, or produce information.
Learning disabilities can affect one’s ability to read, write, speak, spell, compute math, reason and also affect an individual’s attention, memory, coordination, social skills and emotional maturity.
Individuals with learning disabilities (LD ) Outcome 2 - Understand the nature and characteristics of learning disability Explain what is meant by ‘learning disability’ A learning disability is a reduced intellectual ability and difficulty with everyday activities such as socialising and money tasks.
2 Understand the nature and characteristics of learning disability Explain what is mean t by ‘learning disability’ Give examples of causes of learning disabilities Describe the medical and social models of disability.